Beschreibung

Author: Uwe Petersen

Blessings and Victims of Globalization

Economic and social development, relative
impoverishment, unemployment, economic crises,
right-wing and left-wing radicalism, religious wars,
refugee flows and the responsibility of Europe

Translated and updated

Original German Title:

Segen und Opfer der Globalisierung

Wirtschaftliche und gesellschaftliche Entwicklung,
relative Verarmung, Arbeitslosigkeit, Wirtschaftskrisen,
Links- und Rechtsradikalismus, Religionskriege,
Flüchtlingsströme und die Verantwortung Europas

Published 2017

Book cover design:

TomJay – bookcover4everyone / www.tomjay.de
Cover photo: © ginae014 – Fotolia.com

Date of publication: 2018

ISBN: 978-3-7469-1105-2 (Paperback)
ISBN: 978-3-7469-1106-9 (Hardcover)
ISBN: 978-3-7469-1107-6 (e-Book)

Publisher: tredition GmbH, Hamburg

Contents

Introduction.. 8

  1. Europeanism as the source of globalization.. 13
  2. Domination and exploitation as motives for globalization. 13
  3. Trade as a form of globalization. 14

III. Religious missionary work for the further development of mankind. 14

  1. Christian missionary work. 15

Islamic missionary work. 15

  1. Europeanism and its globalization. 19
  2. Western and eastern Europeanism as the origin
    of the east-west-opposition and globalization
    .. 25
  3. Western Europeanism and its globalization. 28
  4. The individualization of man as the essence of Western Europeanism and globalization. 28

1.1 The essence of individualization. 29

1.2 Humanism as the authoritative philosophy of life in the European Western world. 32

1.3 The secularization of Jewish-Christian eschatology in strive after progress. 32

1.4 Work as a means of self-realization. 33

  1. Nationalism as an imperfect individualization of men. 35
  2. The economic and social development of capitalist industrialized
    countries and their misdevelopments through the perversion of individualism in egoism
    .. 37

3.1 The danger of the self-destruction of the capitalist economy by the   displacement
of the workforce by increasingly intelligent machines and the  danger of
monopolizing the world economy by a few global players
. 37

3.2 The transition of the capitalist economy into a secular stagnation as a result of a
too high saving rate in respect to the real economic investment opportunities and the growing danger
of economic crises
. 40

3.2.1 Possibilities and limits to stabilize the economic demand by wage         increases. 41

3.2.2 Export surpluses to fill the domestic demand gap. 42

3.2.3 The Importance of state expenditure for the economic balance of supply and demand. 42

3.3. The increasing global public debt and the rising  danger of state bankruptcies. 43

3.4 The perversion of the capital market to a gambling casino. 44

3.5 The money flooding of the capital market by the central banks  to avoid
depression
. 46

3.6 Summary of economic and social Development of capitalist  industrialized
countries
. 46

  1. The Globalization of Western Europeanism.. 47

4.1 The globalization of Western Europeanism by colonization of the  Third World. 47

4.1.1 The development of international trade relations, imperialism and colonization  up to the
First World War
47

4.1.2 The colonization of the Near East and North Africa by the establishment of  French and British mandated territories
after the First World War
53

4.1.3 What has the colonization and domination of protectorate areas brought about
for Europeans and for the colonies and protectorate areas?
. 54

4.1.4 The end of the colonies. 58

4.2 The development of nationalism in Europe and developing countries after the Second World War. 60

4.2.1 The demise of ancient European nationalism and the independence of the colonies and protectorate territories
after the Second World War
. 60

4.2.2 Nationalism in developing countries as the driving force for the development
of a secular society and its tense relationship with religion, theocracy and tribalism
.. 62

4.3 The impact of Europeanism on Third World Countries. 63

4.3.1 The destruction of traditional forms of life by Europeanism.. 63

4.3.2 Faster population increase through better medical care as an  additional
reason for conflicts in developing countries and emigration to Europe
. 64

4.4. The economic development of developing countries and the  development policy after the Second World War. 64

4.4.1 The increased globalization of trade through the conclusion of the  General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 66

4.4.2 The merger of individual countries into free trade zones and  economic unions. 69

4.4.3 Growth spurt for developing countries due to rising raw material requirements. 72

4.4.4. The emergence of Emerging Markets and their impact on the  economic development of
industrialized countries
. 75

4.4.5 The globalization of the capital market 76

4.4.6 The globalization of secular stagnation. 78

4.4.7 Tendency for decreasing employment by rationalization, especially as a  result
of increasing digitization and robotization
. 78

4.5 Globalization and the environment 79

  1. Eastern Europeanism and its globalization. 81
  2. Russia. 82

1.1 Russia’s perceived mission. 82

1.2 Russia’s ambivalent relationship with the West and the consequences for  the development of Russia. 84

1.3 Russia‘s Globalization. 89

  1. Poland. 91

2.1 The Eastern Europeanism of Poland as a Slavic country. 92

2.2 The self-image of Catholic Poland as the guardian of the true   Europeanism.. 97

2.3 The fall of Poland as a noble republic and its rebirth as nationalist state. 100

III. The development of East-West antagonism and its impact on the Third World. 103

  1. The effects of the Cold War on Third World countries. 104
  2. The development of the Muslim world and its resistance to Europeanization. 107

2.1 Persia/Iran. 110

2.2 Afghanistan. 115

2.2.1 Ethnic diversity of Afghanistan. 115

2.2.2 Political relations with neighboring countries. 116

2.2.3 Afghanistan as a plaything of eastern and western globalization and the religious Resistance
against it
119

2.2.4 The development and role of militias in Afghanistan. 121

2.3 Ottoman Empire. 123

2.3.1 Development of the Ottoman Empire. 123

2.3.2 Decline of the Ottoman Empire, especially because of backwardness in relation to Europe and insufficient willingness to reform   123

2.3.3 The collapse of the Ottoman Empire due to increasing national aspirations of its different ethnicities. 126

2.4 Saudi-Arabia. 128

2.5 Palestine and Jordan. 131

2.6 Syria, Iraq, IS Islamic State. 134

2.6.1 Syria. 135

2.6.2 Iraq. 138

2.6.3 The IS Islamic State. 144

2.7 Kurdistan. 146

2.7.1 Kurds in Iran. 147

2.7.2 Kurds in Iraq. 147

2.7.3 Kurds in Syria. 144

2.7.4 Kurds in Turkey. 150

2.8 Egypt 154

2.9. Libya. 157

2.10 Somalia. 159

2.11 Eritrea. 161

2.12 Turkish Republic. 162

  1. The failure of the Americanization of Russia, Eurasism and the rebirth of the East-West antagonism.. 164
  2. The failure of Western and Eastern Europeanism, also as a result of the
    transition from bipolar to multipolar world politics
    . 173
  3. The blessing and curse of globalization. 174
  4. The crisis and the evolution of Europeanism in
    a globalized world
    .. 178
  5. Trumpism as a crisis of Europeanism.. 179
  6. The unification of Europe as a condition for overcoming the crisis of Europeanism.. 187
  7. The division of Germany and Europe and Europe’s degradation into parts
    of the USA-led Western and Soviet Union-led Eastern Europeanism
    .. 182
  8. The development of the European Union. 188

2.1 Errors in the founding of the European Union and its consequences. 190

2.2 The Eurozone and the consequences of errors in its creation. 192

2.3 Germany’s endangerment of the European Union and, in particular, the
Eurozone, through Agenda 2010
. 194

  1. The threat to social peace and European unity by refugee flows. 197
  2. Left protesters as serious critics of social undesirable developments and as rioters. 198

III. The tasks for the further development of Europe and Europe’s  responsibility for the harmonization
of the East-West  Contrast and the further development of the globalized world
. 200

  1. Principles of new business ethics. 203
  2. Stabilization and further development of the European Union. 208

2.1 Economic stabilization and further development of the European Union. 208

2.1.1 Overcoming secular stagnation. 208

2.1.2 Economic promotion measures to overcome the inequality  in the economic development
of countries and regions
. 210

2.1.3 Protection of sensitive industries of the European market and prevention
from their emigration
. 211

2.1.3.1 Import barriers to protect sensitive industries. 211

2.1.3.2 Participation of employees or of the state in the important companies of the national economy. 213

2.1.4 Capital transfer taxes, the coordination of tax policy and the fight against tax fraud, tax avoidance
and dodging it in tax havens
. 214

2.1.5 Stabilization of the euro zone and new monetary policy principles. 215

What is money and what would be the overcoming of the illusionary idea of money
as a promissory note of the central bank in favor of recognition of money as
a product of the state mean?
. 216

  1. Principles for a European refugee and immigration policy. 220
  2. The need for an enhanced development policy. 222
  3. Germany’s responsibility for Europe and the world. 224
  4. Summary.. 227

Literaturverzeichnis. 230

Author. 236

 

Introduction

The fact that we must deal with the problems of the whole world today is a result of globalization. We must be aware of the fact that globalization is a globalization of our European spirit, our way of life, our technology, including the atomic bomb, our economy and society, and so we are responsible for what is happening worldwide.

As a result of globalization, we cannot only observe a growing standard of living and a faster population growth due to improved health care and medicines, but we also have to complain about relative impoverishment, unemployment, economic crises, left-wing and right-wing extremism, religious wars and huge refugee flows.

To the extent that the negative consequences of globalization affect the Western world, they lead to general uncertainty, which then manifests itself in a loss of confidence in political institutions. Even the greatest achievements of the post-war period, the overcoming of nationalism and the unification of Europe, are questioned and disproved, and salvation is sought in foreclosure and national autonomous regions.

A possible interim climax has been this aversion to established institutions and powers in the election of US President Donald Trump who, and this is already the questionable nature of his programmed policy, promises, along with other billionaires and, with the promotion of capital market games, to lead the mass of the economically backward to new prosperity and new greatness. To this end, he wants to decouple the US from the world market and return lost industries to the country.

All the small Trumps: Victor Orbán, Jaroslav Kaczyinski, Gerd Wilders, Marine le Pen, Beppe Grillo, and the leaders of the PEGIDA and the AfD and their followers in Germany, cheer him and also proclaim their independence and their intention to leave the Eurozone or even the European Union. In doing so, they forget that the US can afford to foreclose and be self-sufficient because they have such a large domestic market that they can force foreign manufacturers to produce in the USA if they want to sell there. But who else wants to invest in smaller European countries?

From purely economic market perspectives, these nationalists would lead their country to the outside and without the backing of the other European countries and without the European Central Bank defending them against the growing monetary and economic turbulences. What a withdrawal from the European Union means can be clearly seen in Great Britain according to BREXIT, if Great Britain can still be called „great“ after a loss of Scotland.

Their ray of hope is that Donald Trump would help countries leaving the EU. He only thinks of America and only recognizes strength. Of course, he is interested in the fact that the power factor of Europe is disintegrating. Since the European Trumps do not recognize the need for a strengthening of Europe, in order to be able to confront America and other great powers, they also prove to be political twits.

The increasing dissatisfaction with the given circumstances is not unfounded. It is the result of an inadequate development of the economic and social theories and ideals and the policy determined by them. Disharmonies developed in this way. In particular, there was an increasingly unequal development of wealth and income. Apart from the social injustice involved, an ever-growing economic demand gap arose as a result of the too high savings in relation to the promising investment opportunities and innovations. The demand gap could only be compensated by increasing government expenditures or by the fact that, as in Germany, excess demand is shifted abroad by export surpluses. Thus, the growth rates remained lean and favored almost only the already wealthy. Only the capital market games flourish and celebrate the breakthrough of ever higher stock index brands.

In order to understand economic development and globalization, we must analyze the underlying motivations. It will be shown that the driving forces and objectives of economic development and globalization are based on the special intellectual development of Europe, as it grew out of an antique and Jewish / Christian heritage.

The naivety of the assessment of contemporary history, society, and thus economic development also means that a man’s image is expressed according to how he has always been more or less structured and assessed as in the modern Western world. This also makes it unclear why civilizations and cultures have developed differently and why it is not possible to introduce Western democracy into any social order. It must be realized that the spirit of people, their feelings, their willingness, their behavior, their self-confidence have only developed over many thousand years and the development has been different in the individual countries. Many things are common to all men, but many things are also different, and if these differences are not heeded, no reasonable interpretation of social, economic and political conditions is possible.

The analysis of the economic, social and political conditions of the world also shows that it is not enough simply to compare power relations, economic development and raw material reserves, but that spiritual and, in particular, religious motivations can be much more important drives for political and social actions. The failure of the US in Vietnam, the Iranian revolution, the quick growth of the IS, and its assertion cannot be explained otherwise.

It may come as a surprise to the contemporary reader that we trace the discussion of the problems of globalization back to religion. But if one considers how far other religious denominations, especially Islam, determine the social ideals of Muslim countries and international politics, then it should really be possible to understand that Europeans should also refer to their intellectual heritage and the resulting behavior, especially in order to meet other religious demands and to understand their own position. Thus it should be allowed, since Europeanism has as its roots in antiquity and, Christianity, to reflect on their essence.

In the discussion of Europeanism, it must not be overlooked that it is divided into a western and an eastern component, both of which have been globalized. The leading countries for Western Europeanism were Great Britain and later the Anglo-Saxon world, dominated by the United States. The Eastern Europeanism is represented by the Eastern European countries, initially most notably by Poland, but then more and more by Russia with its expansion to the Black Sea and to Vladivostok.

These two Europeanisms and their globalization became antipodes since the founding of the British and the Russian Empire. In particular, Russia’s efforts to become a sea power since Peter the Great, and his urge for the Black Sea, the Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean, were felt by the British to be threats to their route to India. The resulting East-West opposition continued to determine nearly all conflicts in the Near and Middle East caused by the East-West divide after the Russian October Revolution and superimposes the current conflicts in Ukraine and the Middle East.

In order to understand current political problems, the essence of the East-West opposition and the position of Europe must therefore also be discussed. The lessons to be gained from this can help to understand the responsibility and task of Europe and, as the strongest economic power of Central Europe, of Germany in overcoming and mediating the East-West opposition. This results in an outline of this elaboration:

  1. Europeanism as the source of Globalization.
  2. Western and Eastern Europeanism as the origin of the East-West Opposition and their Globalization
  3. The crisis and the further development of Europeanism in the globalized world.

In order to make the importance of East-West opposition clearer to Western readers, the intellectual, social and political motives of Russia as bringer of Christian salvation, Third Rome, and Eurasia, which are now increasingly determining the Russian politics, and also Poland’s antagonism against Russia, is discussed in more detail.

To understand the impact of the globalization of Europeanism on countries outside Europe, their development has been described in more detail. Every country has its own problems and can influence world peace.

Leave a Reply

*