Beschreibung

Uwe Petersen

Blessings and Victims of Globalization

 Economic and social development,
relative impoverishment, unemployment, economic crises,
radicalism of left and right, wars of religion,
refugee flows and European responsibility

Translated and updated

Original German title:

Blessings and victims of globalization

Economic and social development,
relative impoverishment, unemployment, economic crises,
left and right-wing radicalism, religious wars,
refugee flows and the responsibility of Europe

Published 2017

Proofreading: Miriam Peters

Book cover design:

TomJay – bookcover4everyone / www.tomjay.de
Cover photo: © ginae014 – Fotolia.com

Publication date: March 2018

Publishing house: createspace

ISBN-13: 978-1983962998
ISBN-10: 1983962996

contained

..

Introduction.. 9

  1. The Europeanism at the origin of globalization .. 12
  2. Domination and exploitation as reasons for globalization. 12
  3. Trade as a form of globalization. 13

III. Missionary religious work for the further development of human beings. 13

  1. Christian proselytism. 14
  2. Islamic proselytism. 14
  3. Europeanism and its globalization. 18
  4. Western and Eastern Europeanism Origin of the East-West Opposition and its Globalization 23
  5. Western Europeanism and its globalization. 26
  6. The individualization of man as the essence of Western Europeanism and its globalization. 26

1.1 The essence of individualization . 27

1.2 Humanism as the authoritative philosophy of the life of Occident Europe . 31

1.3 The secularization of Judeo-Christian eschatology in the pursuit
of Progress.
32

1.4 Working as a means of self-realization 33

  1. Nationalism as imperfect individualization of the people. 35
  2. The economic and social development of industrialized capitalist countries
    and their aberrations through the perversion of individualism in selfishness. 36

3.1 The danger of self-destruction of the capitalist economy by the displacement of labor by increasingly intelligent machines and the danger of monopolizing the world economy by some global players 37

3.2 The transition of the capitalist economy to secular stagnation as a result
of an excessively high savings rate relating to the investment opportunities
of the real economy and the increasing risks of economic crises
. 40

3.2.1 Possibilities and limits to stabilize economic demand through wage increases . 42

3.2.2 Export surpluses to close the gap in domestic demand . 42

3.2.3 The importance of public spending for the economic balance of supply
and demand
. 42

3.3. Growing global public debt and increasing risk of sovereign default. 43

3.4 The perversion of the capital market at the casino . 45

3.5 Flooding of capital market money by central banks to avoid depression . 47

3.6 Summary of the economic and social development of capitalist industrialized countries . 47

  1. The globalization of Western Europeanism 48

4.1 Globalization of the Western Europeanism through the colonization of the Third 48

4.1.1 The development of international trade relations, from imperialism and colonization to the First World War . 48

4.1.2 Colonization of the Middle East and North Africa through the Establishment of French and British Mandate Zones after the First World War   54

4.1.3 What brought about the colonization and domination of the protectorate zones for the European countries and for the colonies and the protectorate zones? . 55

4.1.4 The end of the colonies . 59

4.2 The development of nationalism in Europe and in developing countries after the Second World War   62

4.2.1 The decline of old Europe over nationalism and the empowerment
of settlements and protectorate areas after the Second World War
. 62

4.2.2 Nationalism in developing countries as a motor
for the development of a secular society and its tension with
religious, theocratic and tribal movements
. 63

4.3 The impact of Europeanism on Third World countries . 64

4.3.1 The destruction of traditional lifestyles through Europeanism . 64

4.3 2. Rapid population growth due to improved medical care
as additional reason for conflicts in developing countries and emigration to Europe
  66

4.4. Economic Development in Developing Countries and Post-Second World Development Policy   66

4.4.1 Greater globalization of trade through the conclusion of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 69

4.4.2 The merger of individual countries into free zones and economic zones . 71

4.4.3 Boosting growth for developing countries due to growing demand for raw materials   74

4.4.4. The emergence of emerging economies and their impact on the economic development of industrialized countries   78

4.4.5 The globalization of the capital market . 79

4.4.6 The globalization of secular stagnation . 81

4.4.7 The downward trend in employment through rationalization, particularly as a result of increasing digitization and robotization . 82

4.5 Globalization and the environment 83

  1. Eastern Europeanism and its globalization. 84
  2. Russia. 85

1.1 The perceived mission of Russia . 85

1.2 The ambivalent relationship of Russia with the West and the consequences for the development
of Russia
. 87

1.3 The globalization of Russia . 93

  1. Poland. 95

2.1 Europeanism eastern Poland as a Slavic country . 96

2.2 The self-image of Catholic Poland as the guardian of true Europeanism . 101

2.3 The fall of Poland as a republic of the nobles and its rebirth as a nationalist state . 104

III. The development of East-West antagonism and its impact on the Third World. 108

  1. The effects of the Cold War on Third World countries. 108
  2. The development of the Muslim world and its resistance to Europeanization. 112

2.1 Perse / Iran. 115

2.2 Afghanistan. 120

2.2.1 Ethical pluralism in Afghanistan . 120

2.2.2 Political relations with neighboring countries . 121

2.2.3 Afghanistan as a toy of Eastern and Western globalization and religious resistance against globalization . 124

2.2.4 The development and role of militias in Afghanistan . 126

2.3 The Ottoman Empire . 128

2.3.1 Development of the Ottoman Empire . 128

2.3.2 Decline of the Ottoman Empire, in particular by its delay vis-à-vis Europe and by its insufficient will to reform 129

2.3.3 The disintegration of the Ottoman Empire due to the growing national aspirations of its different ethnic groups . 131

2.4 Saudi Arabia . 133

2.5 Palestine and Jordan . 137

2.6 Syria, Iraq, Islamic State of IS 140

2.6.1 Syria . 141

2.6.2 Iraq 144

2.6.3 Islamic State of IS 150

2.7 „Kurdistan“ 152

2.7.1 Kurds and Iran . 152

2.7.2 Kurds and Iraq 153

2.7.3 Kurds in Syria . 153

2.7.4 Kurds in Turkey . 156

2.8 Egypt . 160

2.9. Libya . 163

2.10 Somalia . 165

2.11 Eritrea . 166

2.12 Turkish Republic . 167

  1. The failure of the Americanization of Russia, Eurasism and the rebirth of the East-West opposition 173
  2. The failure of Western and Eastern Europeanism also as a result of
    the transition from bipolar politics to multipolar world politics. 179
  3. Blessing and curse of globalization. 180
  4. The crisis and the development of Europeanism in the globalized world. 184
  5. Trumpism as a crisis of Europeanism. 185
  6. The unification of Europe as a condition for overcoming the crisis of Europeanism. 194
  7. The division of Germany and Europe and the degradation of Europe into elements of Western Europe
    led by the United States and Esla led
    by the Soviet Union. 194
  8. The development of the European Union. 195

2.1 Errors in the foundation of the European Union and its consequences . 197

2.2 The euro zone and the consequences of errors in its creation . 199

2.3 Endangering Germany of the European Union and
in particular the euro area through the 2010 Agenda
. 201

  1. Endangering social peace and European unity through
    refugee flows. 205
  2. Protesters on the left as serious detractors of social aberrations and rioters. 206

III. Tasks for the future development of Europe and the responsibility
of Europe for the harmonization of the East-West conflict and the
future development of the globalized world. 208

  1. Principles of a new business ethics. 212
  2. Stabilization and development of the European Union. 217

2.1 Economic stabilization and development of the European Union ……………………………….. ……………… .. 217

2.1.1 Overcoming secular stagnation . 217

2.1.3 Protection of sensitive European market industries and prevention of their emigration . 220

2.1.3.1 Import barriers to protect sensitive industries . 220

2.1.3.2 Participation of employees or the state in important enterprises for the economy . 222

2.1.4 Taxes on capital transfers, coordination of tax policies
and the fight against tax evasion, tax evasion and tax evasion in tax havens
. 223

2.1.5 Stabilization of the euro area and new
monetary policy principles
. 224

What is money and what would be the passing of the illusory idea
of money as a ticket dependent on the central bank for the recognition
of money as a product of the state?
.. ……… 225

  1. Principles of a European refugee and
    immigration policy. 230
  2. The need for a strengthened development policy. 232
  3. Germany’s responsibility for Europe and the world. 234
  4. Résumé. 238

Bibliography. 241

Author. 247

 

 

Introduction

The fact that we have to face the problems of the world today is a consequence of globalization. In doing so, we must be aware that globalization is a globalization of our European spirit, of our way of life, of our technology, even of the atomic bomb, of our economy and of our society, and so we are partly responsible for what is happening in the world.

Globalization not only leads to improved standards of living and faster population growth through better care and medicines, but also relative impoverishment, unemployment, economic crises, left and right extremism, wars of religion and huge flows of refugees.

With regard to the negative effects of globalization on the Western world, they lead to general uncertainty, which manifests itself in a loss of confidence in political institutions. In the process, even the greatest achievements of the postwar period – the overcoming of nationalism and the unification of Europe – are challenged and compromised, as a result, salvation is sought in isolation and regions national authorities.

This aversion to established institutions and markets culminated in the election of US President Donald Trump, who – and this is the debatable nature of his political agenda – as a billionaire with the support of other billionaires and with the promotion of capital market games wants to bring the economy back to a new prosperity and a new size. To do this, he wants to separate the United States from the world market and bring back lost industries to the country.

All the little Trumpis : Victor Orbán, Jaroslav Kaczyinski, Gerd Wilders, Marine Pen, Beppe Grillo and in Germany the leaders of the PEGIDA and the AfD and their supporters, acclaim and proclaim by analogy, the exit of the euro zone or even the European Union. They forget that the United States can afford foreclosure and self-sufficiency because they have such a large domestic market that they can force foreign manufacturers to manufacture in the United States if they want to sell there. But who would still want to invest in the small countries that leave the European Union?

From a purely economic point of view, these nationalists would marginalize their countries and, without the support of other European countries and the European Central Bank, would have to defend themselves against the growing currency and the global economic turmoil. What means that a withdrawal from the European Union, can be read geographically as limiting Great Britain alone after the BREXIT, however if Britain can still be called so after a departure from Scotland the “ great. „

Their bearer of hope – Donald Trump – would not help those who would like to go out. He thinks only of America and only recognizes the strong. This is why he is obviously interested in the collapse of the power factor of Europe. Since the European Trumpis do not recognize the need to strengthen Europe to challenge America and the other great powers, they also turn out to be politically unfit.

Therefore, the growing dissatisfaction with the given conditions is not unfounded. It is the result of an inadequate development of economic theories, social ideals and the politics determined by them. As a result, disharmony has developed, in particular, by the development of wealth and income increasingly unequal. Aside from the lie of social injustice, a growing economic gap in demand is due to the high savings rate versus the profit from promising opportunities for innovation and investment. The gap in demand can only be offset by an increase in public spending or the fact that, as in Germany, excess demand is shifted abroad by export surpluses. In the current situation, however, growth rates have remained meager and favor almost only the richest. Only capital market games thrive and celebrate the breakthrough of ever-increasing market index markers.

To understand economic development and globalization, we need to analyze the underlying drives. It will be demonstrated that the driving forces and objectives of economic development and globalization are rooted in the particular intellectual development of Europe, which has developed from the ancient and Judeo-Christian heritage.

The naivety of the evaluation of current history, of social and therefore economic development, is based on a human image, according to which man has always been more or less structured and predisposed as he is in the present western world. . As a result, it remains incomprehensible why civilizations and cultures have developed differently and why it is not possible to introduce Western democracy in any social order. It is important to realize that the spirit of the people, their feelings, their will, their behavior, their self-confidence have developed over several thousand years and the development has not occurred in a similar way in the different countries. There is a lot of similarity among all peoples, but a lot of difference as well, and if these differences are not taken into account, no rational interpretation of social, economic and political conditions is possible.

An analysis of the world’s economic, social and political conditions also shows that it is not enough to compare power relations, economic development and natural resources, but that spiritual and especially religious motivations can be much more important drivers. political and social action. The failure of the United States in Vietnam, the Iranian revolution, the slight rise of the IS and its affirmation can not be explained otherwise.

It might astonish the contemporary reader that we are reducing the discussion of the problems of globalization to religion. Nevertheless, if we consider how other religious denominations, especially Islam, today determine the social ideals of Muslim countries and international politics, we must understand that Europeans also think about their intellectual heritage. and the resulting behavior. This must be taken into account especially in order to respond to other religious claims and to understand one’s own position. Therefore, since Europeanism has as roots, on the one hand, antiquity and, on the other hand, Christianity, it is permissible to reflect on their nature.

When we talk about Europeanism , we must not forget that it is itself a Western and Eastern component, both of which have become globalized. The authoritative countries for Western Europeanism were the United Kingdom and later the Anglo-Saxon world, dominated by the United States. Eastern Europeanism was represented by the countries of Eastern Europe, first Poland, but then more and more Russia with its expansion of the Black Sea to Vladivostok.

These two Europeanisms and their globalization have been in conflict since the founding of the British Empire and the Russian Empire. In particular, Russia’s wish to create a route to the Black Sea, the Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean, a direct consequence of the creation of a maritime power by Peter the Great, and was perceived by the British as a threat to their sea route to India. As we shall see, the resulting East-West antagonism continues to determine almost all the conflicts of the Near and Middle East, and is the cause of the East-West split after the October Revolution in Russia and is superimposed on current conflicts in Ukraine and the Middle East.

To understand the current political problems, the nature of the East-West antagonism and the position of Europe will therefore have to be discussed. The lessons learned can help to understand the responsibility and mission of Europe and, of Germany, as the strongest economic power in Central Europe to overcome and convey East-West antagonism. This leads to the following structure:

  1. Europeanism as the origin of globalization.
  2. Western and Eastern Europeanism as the origin of the East-West contrast and their globalization
  3. The crisis and the development of Europeanism in the globalized world.

To reflect on the East-West contrast and make it more understandable for Western readers, the intellectual, social and political motivations of Russia as a bearer of Christian salvation, the Third Rome and finally Eurasianism that increasingly determine Russian policy and also Poland’s antagonism against Russia will be dealt with in more detail.

In order to understand the effects of the globalization of Europeanism on non-European countries, their development has been described in more detail. Each country has its own problems and can influence world peace. Anyone who knows the history of colonization and independence movements in the tense relations of the East-West opposition can reverse these relationships. They will be identified by special letters.

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